What Where How and When
- People have lived along the banks of rivers for several hundred thousand years. Some of the earliest people who lived there were skilled gatherers, that is, the people who gathered food.
- The Sulaiman and Kirthar Hills to the North-West were some of the areas where women and men first began to grow crops such as wheat and barley about 8000 years ago.
- People also began rearing animals like sheep, goat, and cattle and started living in villages. The places where rice was first grown were situated in the North Vindhyas.
- Men and women moved in search of livelihood, as well as to escape from natural disasters like floods or droughts. Sometimes, men marched in armies, conquering other’s
- People have shared new ways of carving stones, composing music, and even cooking food, over several hundreds of years.
- Manuscripts were usually written on palm leaves or on the specially prepared bark of a tree known as the birch, which grows in the Himalayas.
- Inscriptions are writings on relatively hard surfaces such as stone or metal.
- Archaeologists study the remains of buildings made of stones and bricks, paintings and sculpture. They also explore and excavate to find tools, weapons, pots, pans, ornaments and coins.
- Archaeologists also look for the bones of animals, birds, and fishes in order to find out what people ate in the past.
- All dates before the birth of Christ are counted backwards and usually have the letters BC or BCE (Before Christ) added on.
- People have lived on the banks of the Narmada for several thousand years. The earliest of them were skilled gatherers—people who gathered their food.
- Near Sulaiman and Kirthar hills in present-day Pakistan, crops like wheat and barley were first grown 8000 years ago. People also began rearing animals like sheep, goat, and cattle. They lived in Rice was first grown in the north of the Vindhyas.
- Agriculture developed near the Garo hills and near the Vindhyas.
- Some of the earliest cities flourished about 4700 years ago on the banks of the Indus and its tributaries. Cities also developed on the banks of the Ganga.
- People travelled from one place to another and interacted with each other, thus sharing ideas. This has enriched our culture.
- Old books, called manuscripts, were usually written on palm leaf or the bark of the birch trip. They are helpful in revealing our past.
- Archaeologists have also found inscriptions, which are an engraved form of writing on hard surfaces, such as stone or metal. They were used for various purposes.
- The people who study objects made and used in the past are called They explore and excavate to find old objects. They also look for bones of living beings to find what people ate.
- The people who study the past are historians. They look for information found from manuscripts and inscriptions, which they call source.
Archaeologists: People who study the objects made and used in the past are called archaeologists.
Excavation: The process of digging under the surface of the earth in order to find old objects is called excavation.
Historians: Scholars who study the past are called historians.
Inscriptions: These are writings on very hard surfaces like stone or metal. Manuscripts. Books that were written long ago by hand on palm leaf or barks of trees are called manuscripts.
Skilled Gatherers: The people who gathered their food. They have lived on the banks of the Narmada for several hundred thousand years.
Tributaries: Smaller rivers that flow into a larger river are said to be its tributaries.
8000 years ago – beginning of agriculture
4700 years ago – the first cities
2500 years ago – the Magadha Kingdom