Q1. Discuss the pattern of trade during the Indus Valley civilization. How far did it affect the nature of contemporary settlements in the Indian sub-continent?
Q2. What are the reasons for the decline of Buddhism? Do you think that internal reasons are severe than external? Discuss.
Q3. Akbar built the Mughal Empire by enlisting the support of the Rajputs; Aurangzeb destroyed it by alienating the Rajputs.” Discuss critically.
Q4. What were the major political, economic, and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
Q5. The frequency of urban floods due to high-intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods, highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.
Q6. Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing the ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-30)’. How is this framework different from the ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’?
Q7. How important is vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management? As an administrator, what are the key areas that you would focus on disaster management?
Q8. Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its Partial expense, temporal duration, slow onset, and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.