IAS/ PCS Prelims Practice Question-4

upsc ias prelims question

Consider the following statements with respect to “La Nina”:

  1. During La Nina Year, the waters in the eastern pacific ocean are colder than normal.
  2. La Nina brings heavy rains to Peru and Ecuador regions.

Which of the above statements is/are correct? Select the correct answer from options given below-

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


  • El Nino and La Nina are climate patterns of opposite phases which together forms the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

El Nino:

  • The phenomenon El Nino is also known as the “little boy” or “Christ Child” in Spanish.
  • In the El Nino year, the ocean water in the eastern pacific will be warmer than normal.
  • Air pressure drops over large areas of the central Pacific and along the coast of South America.
  • The normal low pressure system is replaced by a weak high in the western Pacific.
  • This change in pressure pattern causes the trade winds to be reduced.
  • And this reduction allows the equatorial counter current (current along doldrums) to accumulate warm ocean water along the coastlines of Peru and Ecuador.
  • Upwelling along the coasts of Peru reduces and there is huge amounts of rainfall in the Peru and Ecuador regions with reduced rainfall over Australia and India.

La Nina:

  • The word La Nina means ‘little girl’ in Spanish and is also known as El Viejo or ‘cold event’.
  • In the La Nina phase, the water temperature in the Eastern Pacific gets colder than normal. As a result of this, there is a strong high pressure over the eastern equatorial Pacific.
  • La Nina causes drought in Peru and Ecuador, heavy floods in Australia and good monsoon rains in India.
  1. So, during La Nina year, the ocean water in the eastern pacific region will be colder than normal. Hence, Statement 1 is Correct.
  2. La Nina brings drought conditions to the Peru and Ecuador regions. It brings heavy rainfall to Australia and good monsoons to India. Hence, Statement 2 is Incorrect.


Therefore, Option (a)-1 Only is the Correct Answer.

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