Martial Arts of India: India is a land of diverse cultures and ethnicities and has a rich history of traditions, customs, and art forms. Since ancient times Indians have been very fluent in expressing their emotions through dances, music, paintings, and so on. India has a rich history of martial arts that have developed since ancient times.
Nowadays these art forms are used in rituals, celebrations, sports, as means of physical fitness, and as self-defence but earlier it is used for warfare. Many of the Arts are related to dance, Yoga, etc.
Below is given a table of famous Indian Martial Arts.
List of famous martial arts is given below-
|S. No.||Martial Art||Region||Details|
|1||Kalarippayattu||Kerala (specially) & rest of south||Weapon based type“Kalari” means arena. “Payattu” means combat/fighting.Involves strikes, kicks, grappling, preset forms, weaponry and healing methods, the footwork movementKerala’s “Kathakali” incorporates greatly of this in their routinesConsidered older than Chinese martial artsAssociated Legend: This art form was taught to early masters of this by Parashurama (an incarnation of Lord Vishnu) to protect the land he created.|
|2||Malla-Yuddha||South India||Combat-Wrestling type. Unarmed type.Four types: 1. Hanumanti – for technical superiority|
2. Jambuvanti – focuses on locking and holding till opponent gives up
3. Jarasandhi – breaking limbs and joints
4. Bhimaseni – focuses on sheer strength
|3||Silambam||Tamil Nadu||Weapon based typeVariety of weapons used.Majorly used “Silambam staff” as a weapon. (staff – a traditional pole weapon. It has many variants from just a stick to having a knife at one end)Foot movements play a key role movements of animals like snake, tiger, elephant and eagle used“Kuttu varisai” – a variant of silambam & uses no weaponAssociated Legend: this martial art was developed by Lord Muruga (son of Lord Shiva, other name – Kartekeya) & sage AgasthyaTravelled from Tamil Nadu to Malaysia|
|4||Gatka||Punjab||Weapon basedUsed by Sikhs mainlyGatka means – “One whose freedom belongs to race”Stick, Sword, kirpan or kataar used as weapon|
|5||Musti Yuddha||Varanasi||unarmed typePunches, kicks, knees and elbow strikes used|
|6||Thang Ta||Manipur||Weapon Based“Thang” means sword. “Ta” means spear.Anything from sword or spear can be used.Other weapons used are shield and axe.Used in three different ways 1. As absolutely ritual in nature|
2. As spectacular performance
3. As actual Fighting technique
|7||Lathi||Punjab & Bengal||Weapon BasedCane Sticks used.Popular more in villages|
|8||Mardani Khel||Kolhapur, Maharashtra||Weapon BasedCreated by MarathasSuitable for hilly regionsUses sword mainly & needs rapid movements|
|9||Inbuan Wrestling||Mizoram||Unarmed TypeHas strict rules prohibiting kicking, stepping out of the circle and bending of the knees.Aim is to lift the opponent off his feet while strictly adhering to the rules Catching hold of the belt worn by the wrestlers around the waist; it has to remain tight all through the game.|
|10||Pari-Khanda||Bihar, Jharkhand Odisha||Weapon BasedCreated by Rajputs“Pari” means shield & “Khanda” means sword (according to Chhau rulers)Gave birth to Chhau dance|
|11||Kuttu Varisai||South India||Unarmed Type“Kuttu Varisai” means empty hand combatused to improve footwork and athleticism through gymnastics, stretching, yoga and breathing exercisesuse of animal-based sets which includes tiger, snake, elephant, eagle and monkey|
|12||Cheibi Gadga||Manipur||Weapon BasedUses sword & shieldVictory depends more on skill than on muscle power|
|13||Sarit-Sarak||Manipur||Unarmed TypeUsed to fight with armed or unarmed opponent Perfect in its evasive and offensive action|
|14||Thoda||Himachal Pradesh||Weapon BasedOriginated from the times of MahabharataGenerally based on archery skills “Thoda” is the round piece of wood fixed to the head of the arrow|
|15||Mukna||Manipur||UnarmedWrestling Type Two men with their hands holding clothe bands on each other waists wrestle with one another and attempts to throw the other down, and the victor should always be on top of the one falling down|
|17||Karra Samu||Andhra Pradesh||Armed TypeBasically stick fighting|
|18||Kathi Samu||Andhra Pradesh||Armed TypeBasically sword fighting|
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