CRISPR-CAS9 Gene Editing

crispr cas9

CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences found in the genomes of prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and archaea. These sequences are derived from DNA fragments of bacteriophages that had previously infected the prokaryote.

CRISPR CAS9:

CRISPR CAS9 is a genome-editing tool. It is currently simplest, most versatile, and most precise method of gene manipulation.

It consists of 2 key molecules-

  1. Cas9- Enzyme (Molecular Scissors)
  2. gRNA (Guided RNA)- 20 bases approximately

-Not 100% Perfect- sometimes loss of bases may occur and thus may cause permanent mutation.

CRISPR CAS9: Gene Targeting Methods:

  1. TALEN- Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases
  2. ZFN- Zinc Finger Nucleases

1st Experiment-

Master Regulator Gene (OCT 4) also known as POU5F1- Active in cells that form fetus.

Changes:

2 types of Changes-

  1. Somatic- non-reproductive Cells
  2. Germline- reproductive Cells

Potential Use of CRISPR CAS9

Treatment for Cancer, Hepatitis B or High Cholesterol etc.

Ethical, Legal, Social Implications:

  • ELSI Program launched in 1990
  • An integral part of the Human Genome Project.


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