105 Constitutional Amendment Act

105 Constitutional Amendment Act

The 105 Constitutional Amendment Act restored the state governments’ power to prepare the list of Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC).

105 Constitutional Amendment Act:

The 102 Constitutional Amendment Act that gave constitutional status to the National Commission for the Backward Class (NCBC) by adding Article 338B. But, Supreme Court held that the 102nd Amendment had taken away the States’ right to identify the SEBCs.

The 105 Constitutional Amendment Act resolved the issue by amending clauses 1 and 2 of Article 342A and also introduced a new clause to it, clause 3. It also modified Articles 366 and 338B.

The act restored the State governments’ power to notify the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes.

List of All Major Amendments of the Indian Constitution Since 1950 for UPSC:

All Important amendments brought in the Indian Constitution since the inception of the Constitution on 26 January 1950 are mentioned below:

READ MORE ABOUT  Preamble of Indian Constitution

1st Amendment Act, 1951

First Amendment Act, 1951
The state was empowered to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and backward classes
The Ninth Schedule was added
Note: Fourth Amendment Act, 1955 included some more Acts in the Ninth Schedule17th Amendment Act, 1964 included 44 more Acts in the Ninth Schedule29th Amendment Act, 1972 included two Kerala Acts on land reforms in the Ninth Schedule34th Amendment Act, 1974 included twenty more land tenure and land reforms acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
Three more grounds of restrictions on Article 19 (1) were added: Public-order, Friendly relations with foreign states, incitement to an offence. Restrictions were made reasonable and justiciable. 
Introduced the validity of the state’s move to nationalize any business or trade and the same to not  be invalid on the grounds of violation of the right to trade and business

2nd Amendment Act, 1952

Second Amendment Act, 1952
The scale of representation in the Lok Sabha was readjusted stating that 1 member can represent even more than 7.5 lakh people.

7th Amendment Act, 1956

Seventh Amendment Act, 1956
The provision of having a  common High Court for two or more states was introduced 
Abolition of Class A, B, C and D states – 14 States and 6 Union Territories were formed
Introduction of Union Territories

Ninth Amendment Act, 1960
Adjustments to Indian Territory as a result of an agreement with Pakistan (Indo-Pak Agreement 1958): Cession of the Indian territory of Berubari Union (West Bengal) to Pakistan

Tenth Amendment Act, 1961
Dadra, Nagar, and Haveli were incorporated into the Union of India as a Union Territory

12th Amendment Act, 1962
Goa, Daman, and Diu were incorporated into the Indian Union as a Union Territory

13th Amendment Act, 1962

13th Amendment Act, 1962
Nagaland was formed with special status under Article 371A

14th Amendment Act, 1962
Pondicherry incorporated into the Indian Union
Union Territories of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu and Puducherry were provided the legislature and council of ministers

19th Amendment Act, 1966

19th Amendment Act, 1966
The system of Election Tribunals was abolished and High Courts were given the power to hear the election petitions

21st Amendment Act, 1967

21st Amendment Act, 1967
Sindhi language was language into 8th Schedule of Indian Constitution

24th Amendment Act, 1971

24th Amendment Act, 1971
The President’s assent to Constitutional Amendment Bill was made compulsory

25th Amendment Act, 1971
Fundamental Right to Property was curtailed

26th Amendment Act, 1971

26th Amendment Act, 1971
Privy Purse and privileges of former rulers of princely states were abolished

31st Amendment Act, 1972
Lok Sabha seats were increased from 525 to 545

35th Amendment Act, 1974
The status of Sikkim as a protectorate state was terminated and Sikkim was given the status of ‘Associate State’ of India

36th Amendment Act, 1975

36th Amendment Act, 1975
Sikkim was made a full-fledged state of India 

40th Amendment Act, 1976
Parliament was empowered to specify from time to time the limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and the maritime zones of India.

42nd Amendment Act, 1976

42nd Amendment Act, 197642nd CAA drastically amended the Constitution and that is why it is also called the ‘mini-constitution,’

44th Amendment Act, 1978

44th Amendment Act, 1978It is also one of the important amendments in the Indian Constitution, enacted by the Janata Government. It reversed many of the provisions of 42nd CAA.

52nd Amendment Act, 1985

52nd Amendment Act, 1985
A new tenth Schedule was added providing for the anti-defection laws. You can read in detail about the Tenth Schedule in the linked article. 

61st  Amendment Act, 1989

61st  Amendment Act, 1989
The voting age was decreased from 21 to 18 for both Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies elections

65th Amendment Act, 1990

65th Amendment Act, 1990
Multi-member National Commission for SC/ST  was established and the office of a special officer for SCs and STs was removed.

69th Amendment Act, 1991

69th Amendment Act, 1991
Union Territory of Delhi was given the special status of ‘National Capital Territory of Delhi.’ 
A 70-member legislative assembly and a 7-member council of ministers were established in Delhi

71st Amendment Act, 1992

71st Amendment Act, 1992
Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali languages were included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.
Total number of official languages increased to 18

73rd Amendment Act, 1992

73rd Amendment Act, 1992
Panchyati Raj institutions were given constitutional status. 
A new Part-IX and 11th Schedule were added in the Indian Constitution to recognize Panchayati Raj Institutions and provisions related to them

74th Amendment Act, 1992

74th Amendment Act, 1992
Urban local bodies were granted constitutional status
A new Part IX-A and 12th Schedule were added to the Indian Constitution

86th Amendment Act, 2002

86th Amendment Act, 2002
Elementary Education was made a fundamental right – Free and compulsory education to children between 6 and 14 years
A new Fundamental Duty under Article 51 A was added – “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years”

88th Amendment Act, 2003

88th Amendment Act, 2003
Provision of Service Tax was made under Article 268-A – Service tax levied by Union and collected and appropriated by the Union and the States

92nd Amendment Act, 2003

92nd Amendment Act, 2003
Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Maithili and Santhali were added in the Eighth schedule
Total official languages were increased from 18 to 22

95th Amendment Act, 2009
Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years i.e., up to 2020 (Article 334).

97th Amendment Act, 2011

97th Amendment Act, 2011
Co-operative Societies were granted constitutional status: The right to form cooperative societies made a fundamental right (Article 19)A new Directive Principle of State Policy ( Article 43-B) to promote cooperative societies
A new part IX-B was added to the constitution for cooperative societies.

100th Amendment Act, 2015

100th Amendment Act, 2015
To pursue the land boundary agreement of 1974 between India and Bangladesh, the exchange of some enclave territories with Bangladesh mentioned
Provisions relating to the territories of four states (Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya) in the first schedule of the Indian Constitution, amended. 

101st Amendment Act, 2016

101st Amendment Act, 2016
Goods and Service Tax (GST) was introduced.

102nd Amendment Act, 2018

102nd Amendment Act, 2018
Constitutional Status was granted to  National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC). Added Article 338B.

103rd Amendment Act, 2019

103rd Amendment Act, 2019
A maximum of 10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections of citizens of classes other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and (5) of Article 15, i.e. Classes other than socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

104th Amendment Act, 2020

104th Amendment Act, 2020
Extended the deadline for the cessation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty.
Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.

Some Important Topics you may like

Please leave your valuable feedback/suggestions. Share this article with your friends and other aspirants.

READ MORE ABOUT  Polity Questions for UPSC/UPPSC Prelims Exam

Follow us on FACEBOOK

One Reply to “105 Constitutional Amendment Act”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.